The introduction of perestroika and glasnost in the USSR by Mikhail Gorbachev strongly influenced Mongolian politics even through Mongolia was a sovereign nation. The collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, combined with these two policies, were enough to lead to a peaceful democratic revolution in Mongolia in 1990. This, in turn, allowed Mongolia to begin engaging in economic and diplomatic relations with the Western world. The nation finished its transition from a communist state to a multi-party free-market democracy with the ratification of a new constitution in 1992.
Until June 27, 2004, the predominant party in Mongolia was the social democratic Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, or MPRP (ex-Communist Party). The main opposition party was Democratic Party or DP, which controlled a governing coalition from 1996 to 2000.
From 2000-2004, the MPRP was back in power, but results of the 2004 elections required the establishing of the first ever coalition government in Mongolia between the MPRP and MDC (Motherland Democratic Coalition).
The current government has been formed with the Democratic Part and some small parties.
The presidential candidates are nominated by parties those have seats in the State Great Khural and from these candidates the president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The president is the Head of State, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and Head of the National Security Council. He is popularly elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two terms. The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation, veto all or parts of legislation (the State Great Khural can override the veto with a two-thirds majority), and issue decrees, decrees giving directives become effective with the prime minister's signature. In the absence, incapacity, or resignation of the president, the SGH chairman exercises presidential power until inauguration of a newly elected president.
The State Great Khural
Mongolia uses a unicameral parliamentary system in which the president has a symbolic role and the government chosen by the legislature exercises executive power. This legislative arm, the State Great Khural, has one chamber with 76 seats and is chaired by the speaker of the house.
Prime minister and cabinet
The prime minister is elected by the State Great Hural.
The cabinet is nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, and confirmed by the State Great Khural.
Politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system; only the communist party – the MPRP officially was permitted to function. After some instability during the first two decades of communist rule in Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest until December 1989. Collectivization of animal husbandry, introduction of agriculture, and the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out without perceptible popular opposition.
The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy movement in Eastern Europe were mirrored in Mongolia. The dramatic shift toward reform started in early 1990 when the first organized opposition group, the Mongolian Democratic Union, appeared. In the MPRP resigned in March 1990. In May, the constitution was amended, deleting reference to the MPRP’s role as the guiding force in the country, legalizing opposition parties, creating a standing legislative body, and establishing the office of president.