The Mongolian People’s Republic is situated in the centre of the Asian continent. Since hoary past, this territory had been inhabited by different tribes and people, superseding, and assimilating with each other, and at times, disappearing forever. But the arts and crafts and their trade have been passed down from one to another, leaving behind deep impressions on all facets of the mode of life, conscious, aesthetic and philosophical thinking.
Mongolists hold the view that the second half of the second millennium B.C. was for Mongolia a period of highly developed smelting and during which appeared the CARA-SUKSKY style in arts, appertaining to the late Bronze Age. This is evidenced by the sculptured heads of wild animals with long ears, huge eyes, giant horns on bronze knives, daggers, owls, rigs and other objects. The Centre from where CARA-SUKSKY style bronze spread and where it was produced, were both Mongolia and the Ordos, from where it spread into China and South Siberia.
An earlier form of religion of all Paleo-Asian tribes was Shamanism, the worshipping of the spirit of nature, its idolization and animation. Ancient people had their own tribal totems, revered, offered prayers to them. They carved out of wood different objects of Shamanistic cult in the form of beasts, birds, animals, which could very well be regarded authentic works of carving, applique, and ornamentation in special rhythm and composition.
With the spread and domination of Buddhism, arts and crafts and their trade were influenced by the religion. There appeared elements of Indian, Tibetan and Nepalese art. Iconostasis /Gtingerval/, vessels for offering gifts to idols, incense burners and other items, wind and percussion musical instruments, used during divine services were creations of folk craftsmen. Every craftsman, within his own talent, and capabilities developed and made them, which gave wide opportunities for the advancement of creative fantasy and the appearance of artistic individuality.
Objects of everyday life, in particular reflecting man’s world outlook, are distinguished for their diversity and richness.
The Gher has been the basic dwelling of the nomads and its furniture and decore are an entire gallery of arts and crafts.