Mongolia is one of last nomadic countries in the world. Since the Hunnu Empire, The nomadic way of lifestyle is still practiced today in the rural areas of the country. Nomads follow a seasonal routine raising and breeding the five kinds of animals– goat, sheep, cattle (including yaks), camel and horse migrating from place to place following the most favorable pastures and campsites. Reindeers are bred by the Tsaatan people who live high up in the mountains of Khövsgöl lake bordering with Siberia of Russia.
A Horse is not only a prized possession of a Mongol but means of living and survival. The horse is what defies the nomadic culture where any herder can ride as well as her or she can walk. The small horses with big chests and short legs despite their size are incredibly resistant. They live all year around in semi wild herds, gathered only for the draft and the capture. They are partially watched over by herdsmen to defend only against the wolves in winter.
Airag or the fermented mare’s mils is praised for it’s benefit for health and the digestive system. Some airag from certain areas are more famous than the others depending on the grazing grounds and the skill of the maker. Airag holds the cultural and social value in Mongolia as wine in France.
Yaks and cows bring meat, leather and milk used for making a variety of dairy products such as yoghurt, cheese and aaruul or dried curds that constitute.
The main diet of nomads during the summer months. Aaruul, cheese balls of different shapes and sizes dried on the roof of the ger, is used year around.
Sheep is the most common livestock used for meat, a basic staple of nomad’s diet. The skin and wool are used for clothing and making felt to insulate the gers. Goats are raised for their valuable cashmere (goat’s down), the higgest quality cashmere in the world.
In Gobi regions, the two humped Bactrian camels are used for meat, milk and wool as well as for riding and transportation.
Nomads devote their day tending to their livestock watching over, milking, shearing, or combing to produce felt and felt clothes, cheese and other milk dairy products. Herders use uurga or lasso like pole to catch horses for taming or milking.